The patriarch Jacob, an old man, gathered his sons together and told them what would happen to their families “in days to come.” He told Judah that his descendants would have the scepter, and the ruler’s staff, and to him shall be “the obedience of the peoples.” It would be many days, indeed many centuries before that prediction became fulfilled by David. He would lead not only his own people, but many other nations (peoples) would obey him as well.
Yet David did not completely fulfill this prophecy. Jesus is the “Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David.” He will lead both Israel and the nations. By his blood he has “ransomed people for God from every tribe and language and people and nation.” He has “made them a kingdom and priests to our God, and they shall reign on the earth.” So, Judah’s son is also God’s Son, and the King of kings.
When Jesus came as a babe in a manger, some recognized him as heaven’s king. The angels described him as a “Savior” and “Christ the Lord.” The term Χριστός “Christ” is Greek for anointed one: the title of a king. Even as a child he was recognized as Judah’s heir, and God’s king. The wise men went to Herod and asked “Where is he who has been born king of the Jews?” Herod recognized the threat that this child posed for him, and sought to destroy him. Pilate asked Jesus “Are you the King of the Jews?”
At the end of every year, much of the world celebrates a season that some call Advent. It is a season that church tradition has championed for the purpose of remembering the first coming, or advent of Christ. For Advent Christians, this season is all the more special because we celebrate not only our Lord’s first advent, but the promises it brought of his second advent. Much of the world celebrates Christmas without this hope. Like the Jews who missed their Messiah, much of the world sings “Joy to the World” without recognizing its future implications.
The first advent of Jesus Christ was predicted for thousands of years, in numerous ways, and detailed in hundreds of Scripture texts. Yet many of the Jews who had access to the predictions either ignored them or misinterpreted them. Likewise, the second advent of Christ is detailed fully in both Testaments, but Christians differ widely on their expectations. A survey of the predictions and fulfillments of the first advent will yield principles that help us know what to expect as we read the predictions of the second advent.
The Christ expected was to be a real and completely human being, yet also God’s unique Son in human flesh. The eternal Logos, the second person of the divine trinity, would become a human being by being conceived miraculously (without a human male partner) in the uterus of Mary. Isaiah said “Look! The virgin will conceive a child! She will give birth to a son and will call him Immanuel – ‘God is with us.’” When told of this reality, Mary said “But how can I have a baby? I am a virgin.” Matthew explained “All of this happened to fulfill the Lord’s message through his prophet: “Look! The virgin will conceive a child! She will give birth to a son, and he will be called Immanuel (meaning, God is with us).” Joseph … brought Mary home to be his wife, but she remained a virgin until her son was born. And Joseph named him Jesus.”
This incarnated Christ would be the unique seed of a woman, his human nature descending directly from Mary. God told the serpent that “From now on, you and the woman will be enemies, and your offspring and her offspring will be enemies. He will crush your head, and you will strike his heel.” Paul explained that “when the right time came, God sent his Son, born of a woman.”
This incarnated Christ would be the direct descendant of Abraham, the means by whom Abraham would bless the whole planet. God promised Abraham that he would bless those who bless him, and curse those who curse him. He said “All the families of the earth will be blessed through” him and his family. So, people had every right to expect this awaited Messiah to appear in Abraham’s family line. The first verse in the New Testament says “This is a record of the ancestors of Jesus the Messiah, a descendant of King David and of Abraham.”
As already mentioned, this incarnated Christ would qualify as ruler over the people of Israel (and all peoples) since he would legally descend from the ruling tribe of Judah. Jacob predicted “The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from his descendants, until the coming of the one to whom it belongs, the one whom all nations will obey.” Luke informs his readers that “Jesus was known as the son of Joseph. Joseph was the son of … Judah.” Matthew puts it the other way around: “Judah was the father of … Joseph, the husband of Mary. Mary was the mother of Jesus, who is called the Messiah.”
This incarnated Christ would be a direct descendant of King David. Isaiah predicted that the Messiah’s “ever expanding, peaceful government will never end. He will rule forever with fairness and justice from the throne of his ancestor David. The passionate commitment of the LORD Almighty will guarantee this!” The angel Gabriel told Mary that “He will be very great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give him the throne of his ancestor David.”
From these predictions and fulfillments of our Lord’s first coming, we can derive this principle: the Lord’s advent will be a very real human presence, but will be the result of an unprecedented divine miracle. When speaking of his second advent, the New Testament uses two Greek words that also point to this principle: (παρουσία) parousia, the word for a real visible human presence, and (ἐπιφάνεια) epiphaneia, the word for a miraculous divine appearance. Like his first coming, then, our Lord’s second advent will be a combination of physical visible presence and a miraculous, powerful event that defies the ordinary. It will be the same Jesus who came as a baby, but it will not be an ordinary day. He next coming will be noticed!
Christ’s first coming was not a single event. It was an era in which the newborn Christ grew to manhood, and prepared for his earthly ministry as a discipler, and as the divine atoning sacrifice. The entire era was orchestrated by God and revealed in his word. Micah predicted that he would be born in Bethlehem. When the timing was right, the Lord orchestrated events so that Joseph and Mary moved from Nazareth to Bethlehem. Mary gave birth in Bethlehem even though they had no home there, because God was in the process.
The Holy Spirit continued to be involved in the preparation process, ensuring that Jesus would spend his early childhood in Egypt, out of harm’s way. Hosea had hinted at this move when he said “I called my son out of Egypt,” and that hint was made more clear by the Angel of the Lord at the proper time. Mary and Joseph traveled and stayed in Egypt until after Herod’s death, and then returned. By so doing, they escaped Herod’s attempt to kill Jesus by ordering the deaths of all the young male children in the village of Bethlehem. That massacre had been predicted by Jeremiah.
The Holy Spirit brought about the birth and orchestrated the ministry of John the Baptist, whose task it was to bring revival to Israel, preparing them for the appearance of their king. Malachi had predicted a coming messenger, and Jesus admitted that John was “the man to whom the Scriptures refer when they say, ‘Look, I am sending my messenger before you, and he will prepare your way before you.’” John was the forerunner – who introduced an expectant nation to their true king. He was a part of what God was doing during that 33-year period.
God had in past ages declared the identity and unique relationship he had with Christ to the angels. But at a crucial point in that 33-year period, God himself identified Jesus as his unique Son to the watching world. Matthew records “After his baptism, as Jesus came up out of the water, the heavens were opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and settling on him. And a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved Son, and I am fully pleased with him.”
One of the characteristics, then, of Christ’s first advent was that over a period of time and a series of events, the Lord worked out his plan and accomplished his purpose. Rather than being a singular event, the first advent was an entire era, consisting of a series of events in which the Holy Spirit prepared the world for its Savior, who had come. It is not unreasonable to suggest that the second advent will be a similar inter-related series of events.
During his first advent, Jesus showed the world who he is by what he did. His miracles demonstrated and affirmed the audacious claims he made about himself. He began by bringing God’s light to the darkest region of Palestine: Galilee of the Gentiles. He brought his message of deliverance and healing to the enslaved and infirmed, proving his message by setting them free from demons and sickness. The incidents of physical healing and deliverance themselves demonstrated the freedom Christ had to offer through his gospel message. He preached that gospel by many means, including sermons, parables and fits of wrath against the hypocrites who opposed him. By so doing, he demonstrated that he, himself, is the focal point of God’s plan. Those who refuse to believe in him will be rejected by God, no matter what nation they were born into.
In the same way, the second coming of Christ is described in the New Testament as a tremendous demonstration of Christ’s power, revealing his true identity. Jesus predicted that when he comes “all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.” He warned the Council (seated in judgment against him) that they will someday “see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.”
Peter writes “For we did not follow cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty.” He is intentionally ambiguous. It is not clear whether he is talking about descriptions of Christ’s first coming in power, or predictions of his second coming in power. Rightfully so, because both of Christ’s advents will be characterized by a demonstration of power.
When he comes again, Christ will demonstrate his power over sickness and death not by raising some, but by emptying all the graves. He said that “a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice.” He had told Martha that he is the resurrection and the life. We believe that by faith, but we also look forward to the day in which he will demonstrate its truth.
When he comes again, Christ will demonstrate his power over Satan and all his kingdom of darkness. He has delivered some from bondage, but he longs to set the whole world free. The battle is raging now, and we are fighting it by means of the victory won for us at the cross. But when the king comes, he will demonstrate his power by defeating Satan, casting him into a bottomless pit, undoing his corruption of this world, and ultimately throwing him into the lake of fire, which is the second death. That snake will be revealed to be something entirely different than the immortal god he claimed to be. Christ will demonstrate his supreme power over him.
When Jesus first appeared and identified himself as the Savior of the world, he faced rejection, humiliation, and opposition from almost everyone. The clearer he became about what his kingdom entailed, the more people turned away from him. The psalmist had prophesied “Why do the nations conspire and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth take their stand and the rulers gather together against the LORD and against his Anointed One.” Luke wrote that “The leading priests and teachers of religious law were actively plotting Jesus’ murder.” Even though Jesus had demonstrated who he was, his own nation would not accept him. He was betrayed by one of his close friends. They mocked and crucified him.
Sadly, that is going to be the case on a cosmic scale as well. In the end, the vast majority of those for whom Jesus died will say “no thanks” to his salvation. They will take sides with the devil and his kingdom, and reject their Savior. Only, in the second advent, this choice will not lead to Christ’s death on the cross, but the second death of all sinners who rejected his love. The lake of fire is a very real event, and it will mean irrevocable destruction to all who have opposed its alternative: Christ, the life.
The Gospels do not end with the death of Christ on the cross, but they tell the amazing story of his resurrection and ascension. The psalmist predicted that the Messiah would say “For you will not leave my soul among the dead or allow your godly one to rot in the grave. You will show me the way of life, granting me the joy of your presence and the pleasures of living with you forever.” The Lord, once brought down low, would ascend on high. The first advent ended with the exaltation of Christ to heaven’s throne. The second advent will see Christ exalted as king of kings and Lord of Lords. His is the name above every name that is named in the whole universe.
The prophecies fulfilled when Jesus came to this earth the first time set a pattern that help interpreters learn what to expect when the prophecies of his second advent are fulfilled. We know to expect a series of events in which the Holy Spirit works out God’s eternal plan, and exalts his eternal Son. We can expect mighty miracles, in demonstration of who Christ is, and his real physical presence among us. We will see the ultimate battle with Satan, and his ultimate demise. We will see heaven intervene in the affairs of men, and hell destroy the wickedness and evil in this world.
In the first advent, Christ came as God with us. In the second advent, the world will be transformed so that we will finally be with him. The “kingdom of the world (will) become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign forever and ever.” In the first advent, Christ brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. At the second advent, believers will put it on like a garment.
One of the men who was privileged to see his first advent also heard him promise “Surely I am coming soon.” His response is ours: “Amen. Come Lord Jesus.”
By Rev. Jefferson Vann
(Rev. Jefferson Vann is a graduate of Berkshire Christian College, Columbia International University and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. He and his wife Penny have been involved in Advent Christian ministry since 1984, serving as missionaries in the Philippines and New Zealand. Jeff is the author of “An Advent Christian Systematic Theology” and “Another Bible Commentary” and is a contributing editor to “Henceforth …”)
 Genesis 49:1.
 Genesis 49:10.
 Revelation 5:5.
 Revelation 5:9.
 Revelation 5:10.
 Luke 2:11.
 Matthew 2:2.
 Matthew 27:11; Mark 15:2; Luke 23:3.
 Isaiah 7:14, NLT.
 Luke 1:34, NLT.
 Matthew 1:22-25, NLT.
 Genesis 3:15, NLT.
 Galatians 4:4, NLT.
 Genesis 12:3.
 Matthew 1:1, NLT.
 Genesis 49:10, NLT.
 Luke 3:23,33, NLT.
 Matthew 1:3, 16, NLT.
 Isaiah 9:7, NLT.
 Luke 1:32, NLT.
 Matthew 24:3, 27, 37, 39; 1 Corinthians 15:23; 16:17; 2 Corinthians 7:6f; 10:10; Philippians 1:26; 2:12; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 3:13; 4:15; 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1, 8f; James 5:7f; 2 Peter 1:16; 3:4, 12; 1 John 2:28.
 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 1:10; 4:1, 8; Titus 2:13.
 Micah 5:2.
 Luke 2:4-5.
 Luke 2:7.
 Matthew 2:13.
 Matthew 2:14-15.
 Jeremiah 31:15; Matthew 2:16-18.
 Malachi 3:1.
 Luke 7:27.
 Psalm 2:7.
 Matthew 3:16-17, NLT.
 Isaiah 9:1-2; Matthew4:13-16.
 Isaiah 53:4; Matthew 8:16-17.
 Isaiah 61:1-2; Luke 4:18-21.
 Psalm 78:2; Isaiah 6:9-10; John 16:25; Mark 4:11.
 Psalm 69:9; Mark 11:15-17.
 Matthew 24:30, ESV.
 Mark 14:62, ESV.
 2 Peter 1:16, ESV.
 John 5:28, NIV.
 John 11:25.
 Revelation 12:10-12.
 Revelation 20:2.
 Revelation 20:10, 14.
 Psalm 2:1-2, NIV.
 Luke 22:2, NLT.
 Psalm 41:9; Luke 22:47-48.
 Psalm 22:7-8; Luke 23:35; Isaiah 53:12; Mark 15:27.
 Psalm 16:10-11, NLT.
 Psalm 68:18; Mark 16:19.
 Revelation 19;16.
 Ephesians 1:21; 2:9.
 Revelation 11:15, ESV.
 2 Timothy 1:10.
 1 Corinthians 15:53-54.
 Revelation 22:20, ESV.